Enzymes Meaning in Science
Enzyme or Enzymes are the colloidal nature of three-dimensional complex protein molecules in science with specific characteristics for the formation of enzyme catalysis reactions. These are produced from the leaving plant and animals from our environment and enzymolysis reactions are the examples of kinetics reaction where enzymes act as a catalyst. These are responsible for catalyzing infinite no of chemical changes occurring in the living cells. However, when the enzyme isolated from the cells, they retain their catalytic activity.
Colloidal Nature of Enzymes
Enzymes disperse in water forming colloidal state having dimensions in the colloidal range (10-7 to 10-4 cm). Their kinetic behavior is similar to that of the heterogeneously catalyzed reaction. They provide variously functional groups at the catalytic site that can become equilibrium with the substrate molecule and thereby catalyze a chemical reaction. Therefore the enzyme catalysis reactions have often been referred to as micro heterogeneous zero-order kinetic reaction.
Examples of Enzyme Catalysis Reactions
- Enzyme catalysis reactions of enzymes are highly specific in nature.
- For example, the urase can catalyze and hydrolysis of urea but it does no effect on the hydrolysis of methyl urea.
- Diastase converts starch to maltose and maltase converts it’s to glucose. This on further action with enzyme zymase to form alcohol.
Specific Characteristics of Enzymes
- The enzyme is the copolymers of amino acids with specific amino acid sequences.
- The enzyme poisoned and activated like other heterogeneous catalysts.
- The activity of enzyme increases experimentally with the rise in temperature but when the temperature significantly raised, they lose its activity as they coagulate. The activity formed maximum with temperature rise 35 to 45 centigrade.
Kinetics of Enzymolysis Reaction
The enzymes are very effective catalysts also in the different laboratory processes. The concentration of the enzyme required very much lower than that of the substrate. The rate of enzymolysis found to be directly proportional to the concentration of enzymes. When the concentration of substrate varied, enzymolysis reactions usually formed the initial first-order chemical kinetics at low substrate concentration and approaches zero-order kinetics when substrate concentration increases.